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《国际泥沙研究》2018年第四期
发布时间: 2018-10-31

《国际泥沙研究》2018年第四期(Volume 33 Issue 4)

 

International Journal of Sediment Research

Volume 33 Issue 4

1.Water balance prediction in stormwater infiltration basins using 2-D modeling: An application to evaluate the clogging process

Patrice Cannavo, Ana?s Coulon, Sylvain Charpentier, Béatrice Béchet, Laure Vidal-Beaudet

 

2.The quantity of sand fraction sediment in reservoirs as the basis of an assessment of the bedload transport from a reservoir catchment

Szczepan Ludwik D?bkowski, ?ukasz B?k

 

3.Experimental study on blocking and self-cleaning behaviors of beam dam in debris flow hazard mitigation

Hao Sun, Yong You, Jinfeng Liu

 

4.Sediment geochemistry of the urban Lake Paulo Gorski

Authors: Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor, Silvio César Sampaio, Sacha de Rijk, Marcio Ant?nio Vilas Boas, Jackeline Tatiane Gotardo, Everton Tiago Pinto, Fábio Augusto Schardong

 

5.Linear and non-linear approaches to predict the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor of overland flow using the extreme learning machine approach

Kiyoumars Roushangar, Saba Mirza Alipour, Dominique Mouaze

 

6.Time-averaged sub-layer concentration profiles in oscillatory sheet flows

Authors: Yuhai Wang, Wenhong Cao, Wen Lu, Huifeng Liu, Gauhu Sun, Chonghao Wang, FeiLiu

 

7.Issues in Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling of sediment transport under saltation regime

Reza Barati, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabouri, Goodarz Ahmadi

8.A depth-averaged two-phase model for debris flows over fixed beds

Authors: Ji Li, Zhixian Cao, Kaiheng Hu, Gareth Pender, Qingquan Liu

 

9.Countermeasure of river bend scour using a combination of submerged vanes and riprap

Piya Biswas, Abdul Karim Barbhuiya

 

10.Hydrometeorological assessments and suspended sediment delivery from a central Himalayan glacier in the upper Ganga basin

Amit Kumar, Akshaya Verma, Anupam Anand Gokhale, Rakesh Bhambri, Anshuman Misra, Shipika Sundriyal, Dwarika Prasad Dobhal, Naval Kishore

11.A study on zinc speciation of Tungabhadra River sediments, Kurnool, south India: A tool in metal pollution monitoring

Madakka Mekapogu, Jayaraju Nadimikeri, Pramod Kumar Madri, Sowjanya Devi

12.Optimizing the dataset size of a topo-bathymetric survey for Hammam Debagh Dam, Algeria

Djamel Bengora, Lotfi Khiari, Jacques Gallichand, Noureddine Dechemi, Silvio José Gumiere

 

 

 

1.Water balance prediction in stormwater infiltration basins using 2-D modeling: An application to evaluate the clogging process

Authors: Patrice Cannavo, Ana?s Coulon, Sylvain Charpentier, Béatrice Béchet, Laure Vidal-Beaudet

 

Abstract

Sustainable urban drainage systems are built along roads and in urban areas to collect urban runoff and avoid flooding, and to filter water pollutants. Sediment collected by runoff is deposited in the stormwater basin and progressively reduces water infiltration efficiency, leading to the clogging of the basin. To help stormwater basin managers and stakeholders better understand and predict clogging rates in order to elaborate maintenance plans and schedules, water transport prediction models are necessary. However, because of the heterogeneous sediment hydrodynamic properties inside the stormwater basin, a two-dimensional (2-D) water flow model is required to predict water levels and possible overflow as accurately as possible. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and sediment water retentioncurves were measured in the overall sediment layer of the stormwater basin, in addition to sediment layer thickness and organic matter content (11 sampling points). Sediment depth was used to predict organic matter (OM) content, and the OM was used to predict Ks. Water height in the basin was modeled with the HYDRUS-2D model by taking into account the sediment hydrodynamic properties distribution. The HYDRUS-2D model gave a satisfactory representation of the measured data. Scenarios of the hydraulic properties of stormwater basin sediment were tested over time, and hydraulic resistance, R, was calculated to assess the stormwater basin performance. Presently, after 20 years of functioning, the stormwater basin still ensures efficient water infiltration, but the first outflow (Hydraulic resistance, R > 24?h)) is expected to appear in the next 5 years, and clogging (R > 47?h) in the next 13 years. This 2-D water balance model makes it possible to integrate the hydrodynamic heterogeneity of a stormwater basin. It gives interesting perspectives to better predict 2-D/3-D contaminant transport.

Keywords

2-D water transport

Hydraulic conductivity

Sediment water retention

Stormwater basin efficiency

 

 

2.The quantity of sand fraction sediment in reservoirs as the basis of an assessment of the bedload transport from a reservoir catchment

Authors: Szczepan Ludwik D?bkowski, ?ukasz B?k

 

Abstract

A knowledge of the quantity of the sand fraction in the sediments deposited in reservoirs makes it easier to determine the bedload transport, which is a rarely measured parameter. The current study discusses the results of investigations into the siltation and physical properties of sediment in two small reservoirs located in the southeastern part of Poland. Also, the quantity of the bedload sand fraction was estimated. The estimation of the reservoir capacity loss after t years of operation was based on hydroacoustic measurements. The sediment density, organic matter content, and granulometric composition were evaluated by means of investigations and analyses of bottom sediment core samples. The interpolation of the parameters describing the sediment properties was done using the Kriging method. The analyses indicate that 10.80 thousand m3 of sediment were deposited into the Zalew Kielecki Reservoir in the years 2004–2015. Their overall mass was 7320?t, of which sand fraction sediments constituted 39.7%. Between the years 2004 and 2014, the Umer Reservoir retained 11.79 thousand m3 of sediment having a mass of 7200?t, of which sand fraction constituted 34.6%.

Keywords

Reservoir

Sedimentation

Bottom sediment properties

Bedload transport

Bathymetry

 

3.Experimental study on blocking and self-cleaning behaviors of beam dam in debris flow hazard mitigation

Authors: Hao Sun, Yong You, Jinfeng Liu

 

Abstract

Blocking is one of the important features when a beam dam intercepts debris flow, while self-cleaning is another when managing suspended debris flow. Both features determine the debris flow control benefits of beam dam but the latter often is not considered in practical engineering design. In this paper, a series of specially designed flume experiments were done to simulate blocking and self-cleaning processes. The blocking ratio and deposition features were measured to contrast the blocking and self-cleaning performance before and after artificial self-cleaning. The experimental results reveal that the beam dam net opening, particle diameter of sediment, sediment concentration, and gradient of the channel are the main factors affecting blocking performance. A new criterion of blocking performance of beam dams that considers the interaction of multiple factors and can provide guidance to practical project design is proposed. For all three types of blocking, sediment deposited upstream of a beam dam can be effectively transported downstream by erosion from post-debris-flow floods, Self-cleaning performance is most efficient for temporary blocking, followed by partial-blocking, and total-blocking. The efficiency of self-cleaning largely depends on the change of the sediment deposit due to erosion. Finally, a discussion is given for the optimal design of an open-type check dam and the feasibility of synergistic effects of self-cleaning in combination with artificial cleaning. Some supporting artificial silt-cleaning should be implemented in practice. A beam dam will, thus, have more storage capacity with which to control the next debris flow event.

Keywords

Debris flow

Beam dam

Critical blocking criterion

Self-cleaning

Flume experiment

 

 

4.Sediment geochemistry of the urban Lake Paulo Gorski

Authors: Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor, Silvio César Sampaio, Sacha de Rijk, Marcio Ant?nio Vilas Boas, Jackeline Tatiane Gotardo, Everton Tiago Pinto, Fábio Augusto Schardong

 

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration and distribution of heavy metals in the sediments of Paulo Gorski Lake, as well as the metals’ bioavailability and potential ecological risk, and to define the anthropogenic and natural heavy metal contributions to the lake. The chemical elements calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry with two extraction methods to quantify the bioavailable and non-bioavailable fractions. The data were evaluated using multivariate statistics and sediment quality indices. All sediment collection points (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) are different in terms of the concentration of heavy metals, except for S4 and S5, which were statistically equal. The bioavailable fraction of the elements in the sediment follows the sequence Pb>Cu>Mn>Zn>Ni>Cr>phosphorus (P) for all points. The elements Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn showed moderate to considerable contamination at all points. Only points S3 and S5 had moderate ecological risk. Urbanization has been affecting Paulo Gorski Lake via the input of chemical elements, especially Co and Pb. The points most affected by heavy metal contamination are S3 and S5 when the sedimentological sensitivity factor is considered. The lake has high hydrodynamics, causing some of the contaminants that enter the system to leave it, leading to potential negative impacts downstream.

Keywords

Bioavailability

Heavy metals

Paulo Gorski Lake

Sediment

Trace elements

 

 

5.Linear and non-linear approaches to predict the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor of overland flow using the extreme learning machine approach

Authors: Kiyoumars Roushangar, Saba Mirza Alipour, Dominique Mouaze

 

Abstract

In modeling of overland flow and erosion, the overland flow friction factor (f), is a crucial factor. Due to the importance of a good understanding of f and its variability, the current study aimed to investigate the capability of non-linear approaches to estimate the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor of overland flow and its components (sediment transport, wave, form, and grain friction factors) through the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) approach. Four datasets were used herein which were obtained from flume experiments done by different researchers. In order to investigate the effects of different parameters on the friction factor, numerous models consisting of various parameters were utilized to predict the friction factor using the ELM approach. The modeling procedure was established in two stages; the first stage aimed to model the overland flow friction factor and investigate the effect of the different parameters on the friction factor using non-linear separation via the ELM approach. In the second stage, the friction factor was linearly separated into different types of friction factors and then the separate components were estimated. Sensitivity analysis results confirmed the key role of Froude number (Fr) values for most of the models. On the other hand, the results obtained for estimated values of the friction factor were acceptable and outperformed available empirical approaches.

Keywords

Overland flow

Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)

Friction factor

Sediment transport friction factor

Wave friction factor

Grain friction factor

Form friction factor

 

 

6.Time-averaged sub-layer concentration profiles in oscillatory sheet flows

Authors: Yuhai Wang, Wenhong Cao, Wen Lu, Huifeng Liu, Gauhu Sun, Chonghao Wang, FeiLiu

 

Abstract

Although thin on the order of several to tens of millimeters, sheet flows normally comprise a lower pick-up sub-layer and an upper contact-load sub-layer, separated at the bed level (z = 0). The time-averaged concentration profile in the pick-up sub-layer shows a ‘convex upward’ curvature, but ‘concave upward’ shape characterizes the time-averaged concentration profile in the contact-load sub-layer. The time-dependent concentration in the contact-load sub-layer is approximately in-phase with the free stream flow velocity, whereas it is nearly in anti-phase with the free stream flow velocity in the pick-up sub-layer. Two distinct analytical expressions of the time-averaged concentration profiles for the respective sub-layers are proposed. The expressions are validated with detailed observation datasets collected in the Groβer Wellenkanal (GWK) prototype wave flume in Hannover, Germany. The agreement between the predicted and the measured values is excellent. Interparticle collisions in the pick-up sub-layer and convective lifting processes associated with vortex shedding in the contact-load sub-layer are considered responsible for the opposite curvatures and in-phase/anti-phase concentration variations. Both transitional boundary and reference concentration are also elaborated.

Keywords

Sheet flow

Sub-layer

Time-averaged concentration profile

Suspension mechanism



 

7.Issues in Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling of sediment transport under saltation regime

Authors: Reza Barati, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabouri, Goodarz Ahmadi

 

Abstract

The saltation regime is very important for understanding the sediment transport mechanism. However, there is no consensus on a model for the saltation regime. This study answers several questions raised with respect to the Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling of sediment transport. The first question is why the previous saltation models that use different combinations of hydrodynamic forces yielded acceptable results? The second question is which shear lift model (i.e. a shear lift expression and its coefficient) is more appropriate? Another important question is which hydrodynamic forces have greater contributions to the saltation characteristics of a sediment particle? The last question is what are the contributions of the turbulence fluctuations as well as effects of using two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) models on the simulation results? In order to fairly answer these questions, a systematic study was done by considering different scenarios. The current study is the first attempt to clearly discuss these issues. A comprehensive 3D saltation model for non-cohesive sediment was developed that includes all the hydrodynamic forces acting on the particle. The random nature of sediment transport was included using turbulent flow and bed-particle collision models. The eddy interaction model was applied to generate a 3D turbulent flow field. Bed-particle collisions were considered using the concept of a contact zone and a corresponding contact point. The validation of the model was done using the available experimental data for a wide range of sediment size (0.03 to 4.8 cm). For the first question, the results indicated that some of the hydrodynamic effects show opposing trends and some have negligible effects. With these opposing effects it is possible to adjust the coefficients of different models to achieve acceptable agreement with the same experimental data while omitting some aspects of the physics of the process. A suitable model for the shear lift force was developed by linking the lift coefficient to the drag coefficient and the contributions of the hydrodynamic forces and turbulence fluctuations as well as the consequences of using of 2D and 3D models were studied. The results indicate that the shear lift force and turbulent flow fluctuations are important factors for the saltation of both sand and gravel, and they cannot be ignored.

Keywords

Two-phase model

Turbulent flow

Sediment transport

Saltation

Hydrodynamic forces



 

8.A depth-averaged two-phase model for debris flows over fixed beds

Authors: Ji Li, Zhixian Cao, Kaiheng Hu, Gareth Pender, Qingquan Liu

 

Abstract

A depth-averaged two-phase model is proposed for debris flows over fixed beds, explicitly incorporating interphase and particle-particle interactions, fluid and solid fluctuations and multi grain sizes. A first-order model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows is employed to determine the stresses due to solid fluctuations, while the turbulent kinetic energy - dissipation rate model is used to determine the stresses from fluid fluctuations. A well-balanced numerical algorithm is applied to solve the governing equations. The present model is benchmarked against USGS experimental debris flows over fixed beds. Incorporating the stresses due to fluid and solid fluctuations and properly estimating the bed shear stresses are shown to be crucial for reproducing the debris flows. Longitudinal particle segregation is resolved, demonstrating coarser sediments around the fronts and finer grains trailing the head. Based on extended modeling exercises, debris flow efficiency is shown to increase with initial volume, which is underpinned by observed datasets.

Keywords

Debris flow

Two-phase model

Depth-averaged model

Fluctuation kinetic energy

Multi grain sizes

 

 

9.Countermeasure of river bend scour using a combination of submerged vanes and riprap

Authors: Piya Biswas, Abdul Karim Barbhuiya

 

Abstract

A series of laboratory flume experiments were done in a large-scale 180° bend with non- cohesive sediment to find optimal or effective protection works at a bend. Detailed study of the scour and flow field dynamics with and without protection works was done. Spatially dense, high frequency velocity data were collected and analyzed to describe the pattern and magnitude of three-dimensional (3D) velocity throughout the bend. Characterizing the role of flow field dynamics on the pattern of deposition and erosion through experimental measurements provided valuable data about how such flow features contribute to scour and about the performance of the protection works. From the experimental results, it is revealed that for a perennial river it is not possible to protect from scour either with riprap or with submerged vanes alone. Protection from scour at a bend can be achieved with proper combination of these two works. First, submerged vanes can protect the toe, and, second, riprap can protect the upper part of the slope if it is not damaged through toe erosion. The experiments convincingly demonstrate the efficiency of this bank protection technique.

Keywords

River bend erosion

Three-dimensional flow

Vanes

Riprap

Open channel

Sedimentation

 

 

10.Hydrometeorological assessments and suspended sediment delivery from a central Himalayan glacier in the upper Ganga basin

Authors: Amit Kumar, Akshaya Verma, Anupam Anand Gokhale, Rakesh Bhambri, Anshuman Misra, Shipika Sundriyal, Dwarika Prasad Dobhal, Naval Kishore

 

Abstract

Integrated hydrometeorological investigations are not frequently available at a regional scale over a longer time period, especially near the terminus of Indian Himalayan glaciers. An integrated approach to the collection of hydrological data has major advantages for understanding the runoff generation mechanisms at basin scale, particularly when coupled with meteorological observations. The current study involves time series analysis of hydrometeorological records collected near the terminus of the Chorabari Glacier, for four consecutive ablation seasons (June–Sept.) 2009–2012. The analysis shows that variation in rainfall was higher (cv = 0.9) at the same elevation over proximal sites, while the intensity of extreme rainfall events was 121–160?mm/d. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) has a tendency to reduce over the ablation season because of the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and then further increases during the ISM withdrawal indicating humid-temperate conditions. The peak discharge (Qpeak) was found to be higher during July and August. Snow and glacier melt contributed 76% of the total suspended sediment transportduring peak ISM months (July and August) reflecting seasonal evolution of the hydrologic conduits. The results indicate that Karakoram and western Himalayan glaciers produce comparatively low sediment yield compared to central Himalayan glaciers. The hydrological variations are depicted through flow duration curves (FDC) for meltwater discharge and sediment load. The flow corresponding to Q50, Q75, and Q90 (where Qx is the discharge that is exceeded x percent of the time referred to as % dependability) are 4.2, 3.7, and 2.8?m3/s; and the corresponding dependability for suspended sediment loads (SSLs) are 409.0, 266.0, and 157.2?t/d, respectively. The daily SSL and discharge (Q) from 2009 to 2012 were used to develop a sediment rating curve (SSL = 39.55 × Q1.588, R2 = 0.8). Multiple regressions are used to determine the impacts of meteorological parameters on glacier melt. The meteorological conditions, hydrological characteristics, and suspended sediment delivery for the Chorabari Glacier provide insight on meltwater generation processes and sediment transport patterns during the ISM season.

Keywords

High elevation meteorology

Suspended sediment transport

Flow duration curves

Multivariate regression

Indian summer monsoon

 

 

11.A study on zinc speciation of Tungabhadra River sediments, Kurnool, south India: A tool in metal pollution monitoring

Authors: Madakka Mekapogu, Jayaraju Nadimikeri, Pramod Kumar Madri, Sowjanya Devi

 

Abstract

The Tungabhadra River is one of the sacred rivers in south India. Industrial and mining operations on its banks generate enormous amounts of effluent that have led to substantial metal and nutrient contamination of the aquatic system. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to assess variation in the physico-chemical characteristics and speciation of zinc in the water and sediment of the Tungabhadra River. Most of the metal ionsin the collected samples were in high concentrations compared to the applicable standards. The Individual Contamination Factor (ICF) of Zn was found to be more at Site-B compared to sites A and C. Zinc-bearing particles were characterized by the different morphologies measuring from large colloidal to small particles which were associated with biological structures or may be present in amorphous nature which were observed by Transition electron microscopy (TEM) with X-EDS (Energy dispersive spectrometry). In conclusion, the level of Zn contamination in the Tungabhadra River is increasing at an alarming rate due to industrial activities.

Keywords

Physico-chemical parameters

Speciation of Zn

TEM-X-EDS

Tungabhadra River

Individual contamination factor

 

 

12.Optimizing the dataset size of a topo-bathymetric survey for Hammam Debagh Dam, Algeria

Authors:Djamel Bengora, Lotfi Khiari, Jacques Gallichand, Noureddine Dechemi, Silvio José Gumiere

 

Abstract

The capacity of water reservoirs may be considerably reduced by sediment transport and accumulation. This phenomenon may occur quickly in regions prone to erosion, such as Hammam Debagh Dam region in Algeria. For better management of water resources, it is important to estimate the volume of a reservoir by regular and frequent topo-bathymetric surveys. Topo-bathymetric surveys with a high point measurement density are expensive and time-consuming. To reduce this expense and to increase the frequency of topo-bathymetric surveys, it is required to optimize their size and density. The complete survey of the reservoir created by the Hammam Debagh Dam in Algeria was examined in comparison with 19 reduction subsets using geostatistics. The study showed that the complete dataset of 32,164 points, corresponding to a density of 42 points ha-1 could be reduced to 10,000 points, i.e. 13 points ha-1, without affecting the estimation of the water volume in the reservoir. This reduction could considerably simplify the work load, reduce the expenses to do these surveys, and, therefore, allow for an increased frequency of topo-bathymetric surveys.

Keywords

Dam

Reservoir

Silting

Volume estimation

Point measurement density

Volume/elevation curve

 

 

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